We’ve put together THE ULTIMATE LIST of gluten-free flours, starches, powders, and nut meals. Yes, there are more than 90 different types. Some of them you might already know and use, but some of them will be completely new to you. So, let’s dive in and see what kind of flours are gluten-free?
Has it ever happened that you had no idea what to do with a flour you have in hand? What the heck is buckwheat? Is it really wheat? Or sorghum flour? Never heard of it? Have you searched all over Google and Pinterest, but you just can’t find a complete list of gluten-free flours where you can see all the flours there is to find? Well, the good news is. This is the gluten-free flours list for you!!! As this guide contains more than 90 different kinds.
What kind of flour is gluten-free?
Gluten is a protein found in grains like wheat, rye, barley and spelt. Eating gluten-containing grains can cause a lot of people serious health issue, like me. You can read my story here or you can read more about Why is gluten bad for some people? If you do need to eat gluten-free, there is only this 4 grains and their flours that you need to cross off your list.
So the good news is that if we were to list all whole grains, surprisingly (or not) most of them will end up being gluten-free. Awesome, right? You don’t need to feel limited, you need to feel liberated as you will open your doors to so many different grains and other non-gluten-containing ingredients to cook and bake with.
There is a wide variety of gluten-free whole grains out there, which most of us don’t use. The main reason is that wheat was the first domesticated crop, so we got used to cooking and baking with it. You can read more about its origin and history in this FAO research paper.
Before you need any further, a quick pit stop and lesson 101 about cross-contamination. If your home is new to gluten-free cooking and baking, or not your whole family needs to eat gluten-free, you should read Sharon top 4 tips to prevent cross-contamination in your kitchen. Sadly, cross-contamination can spoil a perfectly good gluten-free ingredient.
The Ultimate Gluten-free Flours List
Are you ready to see the list of more than 90 gluten-free flours? We collected ALL gluten-free flours we could think of. We have been cooking and baking gluten-free for a long time now and tried many different ones. If we don’t, there is a fellow blogger who helped us out and gave you a recipe.
- Whole grain gluten-free flours
- Grain-like gluten-free flours
- Gluten-free starches
- Nut flours and nut meals
- Seed flours
- Legume flours (beans and lentils)
- Fruit and vegetable powders
The list of whole-grain gluten-free flours
- Corn flour (Blue) – It is made of purple-blue corn kernels. Its protein-content is medium (8.8 g protein in 100 g). It is fun to bake with this flour as it turns your dish purple-blueish. Blue corn flour* is ideal to make Blue Corn Tortillas, tamales and other similar Latin American meals.
- Corn flour (Yellow) – It is one of the easy and cheap flour to get. Its protein-content is however low (6.9 g protein in 100 g). It gives your recipe an extra sweetness in my opinion. That being said yellow corn flour* – used on its own – in baking is not very common. I usually use it for veggie patties or for pancakes like in this Fried Apple Rings recipe, but always in combination with other flours.
- Corn flour (Masa Harina) – It is a traditional Mexican corn flour where the corn goes through a special soaking and cooking process. Its protein content is low (6.9 g protein in 100 g). You can use masa harina flour* to make Tortillas, Tamales and other similar Latin American meals.
- Cornmeal – It can also be used as flour in certain cases and not just for polenta. They can be so versatile, you might not even realize its potential. Cornmeal can be used to make pancakes, cookies, muffins, but also perfect for breaded veggies or vegetable patties. Yellow cornmeal* is also the main ingredient for Cornbread and corn dogs.
- Millet flour – It is one of the protein-rich flours (10.8 g protein in 100 g). This flour can be widely used just like brown rice flour. Ideal for pancakes, Bread, sauces, muffins, and other desserts, although you need to mix them with other flours as on its own millet flour* has a distinctive taste. Or at least for me.
- Oat flour – It has one of the highest protein content (13.2 g protein in 100 g). It is a very wheat-like flour. That’s why it is also one of the most important staples in our kitchen to make this Oat Flour Chocolate Cake. I regularly use it in combination with rice flour or other flours and starches. Oats are naturally gluten-free, although they are usually cross-contaminated with other grains. Therefore, you need certified gluten-free oat flour*. Read more about it on Coeliac.org.uk or NCA’s Stance on Gluten-free Oats.
- Oatmeal – It can be used similarly as flour in certain cases. There are rolled, quick oats*, and steel cut oats. You can use rolled oats and quick oats for getting these Eggplant Meatballs, these Beet Burgers or other veggie patties, nut loaves or sausages some texture. They work great in desserts like this Banana Peanut Butter Oatmeal Cookies recipe, or in this Strawberry Rhubarb Crisp recipe.
- Rice flour (Brown) – It is is one of the easiest and cheapest flour to get. Its protein-content is medium (8.6 g protein in 100 g). Usually, brown rice flour* is my go-to flour. The first one I take from the shelf to make any recipe. You can use it for almost everything from thickening a soup or sauce to making pasta or baking bread. I make Pancakes and Waffles with them regularly.
- Rice flour (White) – It is one of the easiest and cheapest flour to get. Its protein-content is however low (6 g protein in 100 g). You can use interchangeably to brown rice flour, although your baking recipe might turn out to be gritty/grainy/crumbly. I only use white rice flour* on its own to thicken a soup or sauce. In any other case, I use it in combination with other flours like in this Ultra-thin Gluten-free Pizza Crust recipe.
- Glutinous rice flour (Sweet rice flour) – Its name maybe suspicious but it has nothing to do with gluten, it just means sticky rice. Its protein content is low (6.7 g protein in 100 g). Glutinous rice flour* is a staple gluten-free flour in the Asian cuisine to make tangyuan, or fried dumplings, or the famous Japanese mochi or these Vietnamese Rice Balls.
- Sorghum flour (Milo flour or Jowar flour) – It is considered to be a very wheat-like flour and behaving similarly during baking. Its protein content is low (6.9 g protein in 100 g). It is not frequently used on its own, but in combination with other flours. Sorghum flour* is great for cookies, crackers, cakes, like this Coffee Cake, but also makes great yeast dough for Pizza.
- Teff flour – It has one of the highest protein content (13.3 g protein in 100 g). It is a staple gluten-free flour in Africa to make flatbreads, although this flour is perfect for Waffles, pancakes and other baking recipes. Teff flour* has a nutty taste and dark brown color works well with chocolate, caramel, maple, and coffee flavors like in this Energy Bar.
The list of grain-like gluten-free flours
Technically these non-cereal grain flours are not made of grain, but they behave like one. They are highly nutritious, but usually rather expensive. These flours – in combination with other gluten-free flours can give a nutritional boost to any recipe. I found this research paper quite interesting about pseudocereals.
- Amaranth flour – It is one of the protein-rich flours (13.3 g protein in 100 g), but not one of the cheapest one to use. You can use sparingly by adding sprouted amaranth flour* to your flour mix to give your baking a nutritional boost. However, you can use it alone in Crackers, in cookies or in pancakes.
- Buckwheat flour – It has nothing to do with wheat even if its name contains this word. This flour is one of the protein-rich flours (12.6 g protein in 100 g) and it is another staple in my kitchen. It has a very distinctive nutty taste and grey color. Buckwheat flour* is perfect for quick and easy pancakes and Crepes, but also a great base flour to bake bread or cake. I use it to make this Gluten-free Pizza Crust or this Gluten-free Vegan Pie Crust.
- Chia seed flour aka Ground chia seeds – They became quite popular recently mainly in the plant-based / vegan diet as they can be an excellent egg substitute in baking. They work better with thicker doughs as chia seeds* absorb a lot of moisture like muffins, pancakes or cookies. Ground chia makes a perfect Pudding.
- Quinoa flour – It has one of the highest protein content (14.1 g protein in 100 g), but also one of the expensive ones. You can substitute quinoa flours in most of the recipes, but use it in combination with brown rice flour or oat flour. Quinoa flour* is best to use it in muffins, pancakes, Brownies, and yeast-free quick bread.
- Canihua flour (Kaniwa flour) – It is very similar to quinoa flour but with even more nutrients (15.6 g protein in 100 g). It originates from Peru and Bolivia. Where a recipe calls for quinoa flour, you can use canihua flour. You can read more about it here.
- Acacia seed flour (Wattleseed) – It is getting more and more popular in Australia partly due to its astonishing amount of protein (17-27 g protein in 100 g depending on species). You can read more about it here.
The list of gluten-free starches
Starches (cornstarch, tapioca starch, arrowroot starch, and potato starch) are PARAMOUNT in gluten-free baking, as they make everything better. They also act as a FAIL-SAFE as they can fix almost any problems. Let me tell you some examples:
- Is the soup, stew, Pot Roast or Bechamel sauce not thick enough? Add some starch.
- Is the Custard too soft and runny? The starch was not enough.
- Are the veggie burgers not sticking together? Add some starch.
- Can’t get the pancake mix to work? Add some starch.
- Is the pie crust too crumbly? Probably, the starch was not enough.
How to use starches in gluten-free baking?
The most important thing you need to know about starches is that they need HEAT to activate. Tapioca starch needs the lowest temperature, and cornstarch the highest. They will have also different thickening powers and features. Here is a complete guide to the Best Tapioca Flour Substitutes including when and how to use each of them. And yes, tapioca flour is the same as tapioca starch.
Talking about using starches in general. If I am making Gnocchi, or Pizza Crust, or Pie Crust or veggie patties, like these Mushroom Meatballs I usually work with a soft dough as it will harden and get nice and crispy once the starch in it is activated in the oven or on the stove top. I don’t put much flour in their mix, just a bit of starch to get the required result.
The list of nut flours and nut meals
Nut flours work perfectly not only in gluten-free baking but in grain-free (paleo) baking as well. They are full of nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Wanna guess which nut has the highest protein-content? ……Peanuts (7.3 g per 1-oz serving, not per 100g like grains). You can read more about the health benefits of nuts over at Healthline.
Which nut flour to choose?
If a recipe is calling for a nut flour, you can choose any nut flour except coconut flour. Coconut flour is special as it absorbs moisture a little too well. You need to adjust your liquid ingredients if you substitute any flour for coconut flour.
- Acorn / Oaknut Flour
- Almond Flour
- Cashew Flour
- Chestnut Flour
- Coconut Flour
- Hazelnut Flour
- Macadamia Flour
- Peanut Flour
- Pecan Flour
- Pistachio Flour
- Tiger Nut Flour
- Walnut Flour
Difference between nut flour, nut meal, and ground nuts
Nut flour is finer, while ground nuts or nut meal is coarser. Recipes are using the words ground nuts and nut meal interchangeably though, but they are the same. If you buy ground nut or nut meal, make sure to check the packaging to see how coarse it is as that may vary.
In the case of almonds though there is a larger difference. Almond flour is made of blanched almonds, while the almond meal is usually almonds ground with its brown skin on.
Making nut flour at home?
You only need a good and strong blender, like a Vitamix*. Making nut flour (except coconut flour) is easy. You need to blend the nuts for approx. 30-40 seconds (not too much longer as the nuts might turn into nut butter) and sift the nut meal through a flour sifter* or a fine mesh sieve* to get as close to flour consistency as you wish. If it is not fine enough, you can always use it as a nut meal. 🙂
The list of seed flours
Seed flours are another category of gluten-free flours. They work very similar to nut flours, so people with a nut allergy can enjoy delicious nut-free dishes. Seed flours are perfect for gluten-free baking, but they are also important staples both in the paleo and in the keto diet, where grains are not allowed.
- Flaxseed meal (Ground flax) – The most common use of flaxseed meal is actually as an egg substitute in baking. Milled ground flax* works the same as chia seeds. You need 3 Tbsp water and 1 Tbsp flaxseed meal. Then you need to wait for a couple of minutes until the mixture thickens and it reaches an egg-like gelee consistency. I use it a lot in gluten-free baking. You can make Pancakes, muffins, cookies or crackers with just this “flour” or if you want to sneak in some extra Omega-3 fat (and 5.2 g protein per 1-oz serving), add them to your veggie ball, meatloaf or burger patty.
- Hemp flour – It has become such a trendy ingredient thanks to its high protein (8.4 g protein per 1-oz serving) and fiber content (1 oz covers more than 50% of the daily need). I usually use the ground hemp seed meal or hemp hearts to add to smoothies and use hemp flour* to give an extra protein boost to any muffin, Chocolate Cake, brownie or pancake recipe. Here is a great recipe using .
- Mesquite flour – It is a Native American staple with low glycemic index and a high fibre content (and 6.3 g protein per 1-oz serving). If you add it to any baked goods, you will have some additional nutty flour with a hint of caramel and cocoa taste. You can definitely substitute it instead of cocoa powder. Or you can add to your Gluten-free Bread Mix.
- Perilla seed flour – It is a gluten-free flour also known as wild sesame seed flour or Deulkkae-garu. It is used widely in Korean cuisine. Usually, perilla seed flour* is used to thicken soups and Stews, while adding a nutty flavor to it (and 4.2 g protein per 1-oz serving).
- Pumpkin seed flour – One of the easiest seed flour to make at home from raw or roasted pumpkin seeds. They are not only nutritious: full of Omega 6-fat and loaded with Magnesium, Manganese, and Phosphorus (8.5 g protein per 1-oz serving) gives any baked goods a nice green color. You can add pumpkin seeds* to your savory baking mix to make Pumpkin Seed Bread or muffins or cookies or crackers.
- Sesame seed flour – It is actually raw unhulled sesame seeds that are ground into a fine flour. Sesame is very nutritious: full of Omega 6-fat, Vitamine B and lots of minerals (and 5.8 g protein per 1-oz serving). Sesame flour* is not only perfect for gluten-free baking but widely used in the keto diet where no grains are allowed. You can add to any bread, Cookies, Sesame Caramel Bars, shortbread or cracker recipe.
- Sunflower seed flour – It is another easy seed flour to make at home from raw sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds* are highly nutritious: full of Omega 6-fat, loaded with Vitamin E (and 5.9 g protein per 1-oz serving). You can add them to make Sunflower Seed Bread or muffin or cookie or cracker recipes.
Making seed flour at home?
You only need a good and strong blender. Making seed flour can easy. You need to blend flax, sesame, pumpkin or sunflower for approx. 30-40 seconds (not too much longer as the seeds might turn into tahini or seed butter) and sift the meal through a flour sifter* or a fine mesh sieve* to get as close to flour consistency as you wish. If it is not fine enough, you can always use it as ground seeds 🙂
The list of bean and lentil flours
All bean and lentils flours are made from uncooked dried legumes ground into a fine powder. If you have a high power blender or a mill, you can easily make any bean or lentil flour at home. As an added bonus, all flours made of legumes are highly nutritious as they keep all the protein, mineral and vitamin even after they are milled.
- Adzuki Bean Flour
- Black Bean Flour
- Black Eyed Pea Flour
- Black Matpe Bean Flour
- Chickpea or Garbanzo Bean Flour or Gram Flour or Besan – It is widely used in India. Just think of the most popular ones like pakora or dosa (aka crepe) or roti (aka flatbread). Chickpea flour* is also very popular in vegan recipes as you can make great scrambled eggs, Vegan Frittata, crepe, pizza crust, pasta, brownies – literally everything.
- Fava Bean Flour
- Green Pea Flour
- Green Lentil Flour
- Kidney Bean Flour
- Lima Bean Flour
- Mung Bean Flour
- Navy Bean Flour
- Pinto Bean Flour
- Red Lentil Flour
- Soybean Flour
- Yellow Split Pea Flour
- White Bean Flour
The list of fruit powders
Fruit flours or rather fruit powders are very similar to cocoa powder. They are also very fine and elevate the flavors of your baking. I use them sparingly, just as I would use cocoa powder. If I make a blueberry muffin, I would add some blueberry powder to increase the blueberry taste and give the muffin a nice purple-ish color. Or if I make banana bread or a vegan banana pancake, I would add some green banana flour for an additional flavor boost. Which one would you try from the below list?
- Apple flour*
- Apple peel powder*
- Banana flour*
- Blackberry powder*
- Blueberry powder*
- Cranberry powder*
- Dragon fruit powder*
- Mango flour*
- Plantain flour or Green banana flour*– It is a bit more special, as you can use them on its own. It is super high in fiber and loaded with minerals (potassium and magnesium) and perfect in Pancakes, waffles, banana bread, and anything really where you like some extra banana flavor.
- Raspberry powder*
- Strawberry powder*
The list of vegetable powders
Gluten-free vegetable powders are here to enhance your savory dishes. You can add them to any pasta sauce, soups, stews to highlight the flavors of the veggies in there. Ssssshhh….. they are also perfect to turn a bit unripe veggies to taste better while cooking.
- Beetroot flour*
- Broccoli powder*
- Butternut squash flour*
- Cassava flour* – I would like to highlight that with cassava flour you can make a killer Gluten-free Tortilla. It will be the closest thing to wheat tortilla you can buy in the store.
- Carrot flour*
- Collard greens powder*
- Kale flour*
- Pumpkin flour*
- Spinach powder*
- Sweet potato flour*
- Yam flour*
Other gluten-free baking essentials
- Baobab powder
- Cocoa powder
- Cacao powder
- Carob powder
- Coffee flour
- Baking powder (click here for the list of gluten-free baking powder brands)
- Baking soda
- Xanthan gum / Guar gum
- Psyllium husk